Search results “Us government bonds risk and return”
Bonds Explained for Beginners | Bond Trading 101
Earn up to 1 Year Free: https://bit.ly/2oul70h Free Resources: https://bit.ly/2wymZbJ A bond is a type of loan issued to some type of entity such as a business or government by an investor. It’s similar to borrowing money from a lender if you’ve ever purchased a home or car before. Sometimes businesses need more money than the banks will offer them, so they issue bonds as a way to raise more capital. Governments can also issue bonds when they need more money for things like roads or parks. Bonds are considered safer on the risk spectrum for investments, but they also typically carry a lower return. Benjamin Graham, author of the intelligent investor and Warren Buffets mentor, recommends holding a portfolio of 75% stocks and 25% bonds during a bull market and 75% bonds and 25% stocks during a bear market. As opposed to other investments which are considered equity, bonds are considered debt which means that if a company goes under, it must repay all bondholders before stockholders. This is due to the fixed interest nature of the bond. When the investor purchases a bond at what’s called the face value, they are paid interest, known as the coupon or yield. The reason it’s referred to as coupon is because back when bonds were actually paper, investors would physically have to clip coupons to redeem their interest. Anyway, the investor is paid a coupon on the bond until the loan is fully paid back by the issuer. This is known as the maturity date. Interest payment frequency and the maturity date is determined prior to the purchase of the bond. For example, if I purchase a $1,000, 3-year bond with a 5% coupon, I know I’ll receive $50 in interest each year for 3 years. Now it’s important to note that Bonds can vary in risk and return A AAA bond is the best bond you can buy while a Ba bond and lower are more speculative and are known as Junk bonds When it comes to bonds, the higher the return, the higher the risk. The lower the return, the lower the risk. Bonds with a longer maturity date are also riskier and carry a higher return. Typically government bonds will be safer than corporate bonds. When it comes to taxation, corporate bonds are taxed regularly while some bonds like municipal and other government bonds are tax-exempt. A bond can also be secured or unsecured With an unsecured bond, you may lose all of your investment if the company fails while with a secured bond, the company pledges specific assets to give shareholders if they fail to repay their bonds. Although bonds are considered a “safer” investment, they still do come with risks. When you purchase a bond, interest rates are out of your control and may fluctuate. Interest rates are controlled by the U.S. treasury, the federal reserve, and the banking industry. This means that if specified in your agreement, the company may be able to issue a call provision which is an early redemption of the bond. While not always the case, companies will take advantage of lower interest rates to pay back loans early. This leaves you with a lower return than what you expected. Bonds are also inversely proportional to interest rates so when interest rates go up, bonds go down and vice versa. Bonds can also be traded between investors prior to its maturity date. A bond that’s traded below the market value is said to be trading at a discount while a bond trading for more than it’s face value is trading at a premium. Bonds can be a great way to diversify your investment portfolio, however, they can also be quite complex. You can use investment platforms like Fidelity, E-Tade, or Charles Shwabb to learn more about specific types of bonds. For today’s video, we will be using Fidelity. Social Links: Website: http://www.wharmstrong.com Twitter: http://bit.ly/2DBEhdz Facebook: http://bit.ly/2F5uB8a Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/wharmstrong1/ Disclaimer: Nothing published on my channel should be considered personal investment advice. Although I do discuss various types of investments and strategies, I am not a licensed professional. Please invest responsibly. This post contains affiliate links
Views: 6131 Will Armstrong
Relationship between bond prices and interest rates | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy
Why bond prices move inversely to changes in interest rate. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/bonds-tutorial/v/treasury-bond-prices-and-yields?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/bonds-tutorial/v/introduction-to-the-yield-curve?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Both corporations and governments can borrow money by selling bonds. This tutorial explains how this works and how bond prices relate to interest rates. In general, understanding this not only helps you with your own investing, but gives you a lens on the entire global economy. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 565169 Khan Academy
What are government bonds? | IG Explainers
Learn all about government bonds: including what they are, how they work, and why they move in price. ► Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/IGUnitedKingdom?sub_confirmation=1 ► Learn more: https://www.ig.com/uk/bonds/what-are-government-bonds Twitter: https://twitter.com/IGcom Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/IGcom LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/igcom Google Play: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.iggroup.android.cfd&hl=en_GB We provide fast and flexible access to over 10,000 financial markets – including indices, shares, forex, commodities – through our award-winning range of platforms and apps. Established in 1974 as the world’s first financial spread betting firm, we’re now the world’s No.1 provider of CFDs and spread betting* and a global leader in forex. We also offer an execution-only share dealing service in the UK, Ireland, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. Through our low fees and smart price-sourcing technology, we help traders keep their costs down. All trading involves risk. Spread bets and CFDs are leveraged products and can result in losses that exceed deposits. The value of shares, ETFs and ETCs bought through a share dealing account can fall as well as rise. Please take care to manage your exposure. * For CFDs, based on revenue excluding FX, published financial statements, October 2016; number of active UK financial spread betting accounts (Investment Trends UK Leveraged Trading Report released June 2017); for forex based on number of primary relationships with FX traders (Investment Trends UK Leveraged Trading Report released June 2017)
Views: 9638 IG UK
Key Things to Know about Fixed Income ETFs | Fidelity
Find out more about exchange-traded funds with us at the https://www.fidelity.com/learning-center/investment-products/etf/overview To see more videos from Fidelity Investments, subscribe to: https://www.youtube.com/fidelityinvestments Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/fidelityinvestments Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/fidelity Google+: https://plus.google.com/+fidelity LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/fidelity-investments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Fixed income can be a critical part of nearly every well-diversified portfolio. Used correctly, fixed income can add diversification and a steady source of income to any investor’s portfolio. But how do you choose the right fixed-income ETF? The key to choosing the right fixed-income ETF lies in what it actually holds. U.S. bonds or international bonds? Government securities or corporate debt? Bonds that come due in two years or 20 years? Each decision determines the level of risk you’re taking and the potential return. There are many types of risks to consider with bond investing. Let’s talk more about two in particular: Credit risk and Interest-rate risk. Determining the level of credit risk you want to assume is an important first step when choosing a fixed-income ETF. Do you want an ETF that only holds conservative bonds—like bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury? Or do you want one holding riskier corporate debt? The latter may pay you a higher interest rate, but if the company issuing the bond goes bankrupt, you’ll lose out. ETFs cover the full range of available credit. Look carefully at the credit quality composition of the ETFs underlying holdings, and don’t be lured in by promises of high yields unless you understand the risks. Bonds are funny. Intuitively, you would assume that higher interest rates are good for bondholders, as they can reinvest bond income at higher prevailing interest rates. But rising interest rates may be bad news, at least in the short term. Imagine that the government issues a 10-year bond paying an interest rate of 2%. But shortly thereafter, the U.S. Federal Reserve hikes interest rates. Now, if the government wants to issue a new 10-year bond, it has to pay 3% a year in interest. No one is going to pay the same amount for the 2% bond as the 3% bond; instead, the price of the 2% bond will have to fall to make its yield as attractive as the new, higher-yielding security. That’s how bonds work, like a seesaw: As yields rise, prices fall and vice versa. Another important measure to consider when looking at interest rate risk is duration which helps to approximate the degree of price sensitivity of a bond to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration, the more any change in interest rates will affect your investment. Conversely, the shorter the duration, the less any change in interest rates will affect your investment. Let’s review a few other considerations when looking at fixed income ETFs. First, expense ratios: Because your expected return in a bond ETF is lower than in most stock ETFs, expenses take on extra importance. Generally speaking, the lower the fees, the better. Second, tracking difference: It can be harder to run a bond index fund than an equity fund, so you may see significant variation between the fund’s performance and the index’s returns. Try to seek out funds with low levels of tracking difference, meaning they track their index well. Finally, some bonds can be illiquid. As a result, it’s extra important to look out for bond ETFs with good trading volumes and tight spreads. There are other factors to watch for too, but these are the basics. ETFs can be a great tool for accessing the bond space, but as with anything, it pays to know what you’re buying before you make the leap. Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, Member NYSE, SIPC, 900 Salem Street, Smithfield, Rhode Island, 02917 723251.2.0
Views: 64060 Fidelity Investments
The yield curve | Stocks and bonds | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy
Annual Interest Varying with Debt Maturity. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/corp-bankruptcy-tutorial/v/chapter-7-bankruptcy-liquidation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/bonds-tutorial/v/annual-interest-varying-with-debt-maturity?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Both corporations and governments can borrow money by selling bonds. This tutorial explains how this works and how bond prices relate to interest rates. In general, understanding this not only helps you with your own investing, but gives you a lens on the entire global economy. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 146546 Khan Academy
CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model in 4 Easy Steps - What is Capital Asset Pricing Model Explained
OMG wow! I'm SHOCKED how easy clicked here http://www.MBAbullshit.com for CAPM or Capital Asset Pricing Model. This is a model applied to indicate an investor's "expected return", or how much percentage profit a company investor ought to logically demand to be a "fair" return for making investments into a company. http://mbabullshit.com/blog/2011/08/06/capm-capital-asset-pricing-model/ To find this, yet another question can be queried: Just how much is the sound "decent" percentage % profit that a financier should probably receive if he invests in a business (having comparatively high risk) in contrast to putting his money in government bonds which might be regarded to be "risk free" and instead of putting his hard earned cash in the general share market presumed to offer "medium" risk? Visibly, it is almost only "fair" that in fact the investor receives a gain higher compared to the government bond percentage (due to the reason that the solitary enterprise possesses higher risk). It's moreover only just that he should expect a return larger than the broad stock exchange yield, because the specific business enterprise has higher risk compared to the "medium risk" general stock market. So just as before,how much exactly should this investor fairly receive as a smallest expected return? This is where the CAPM Model or Capital Asset Pricing Model comes in. The CAPM Formula includes all these variables simultaneously: riskiness of the individual firm depicted by its "beta", riskiness of the universal stock market, rate of interest a "risk free" government bond would give, as well as others... and then spits out an actual percent which your investor "should be allowed" to take for investing his or her hard earned money into this "riskier" single firm. This particularly exact percent is known as the "expected return", given that it can be the yield that he should "expect" or require to obtain if he invests his hard earned cash into a specific firm. This precise percentage is known as the "cost of equity". The CAPM Model or CAPM Formula looks something like this: Expected Return = Govt. Bond Rate + (Risk represented by "Beta")(General Stock Market Return --Govt. Bond Rate) Utilizing this formula, you are able to see the theoretically exact rate of return theindividual business enterprise investor ought to reasonably expect for his or her investment, if the CAPM Model or Capital Asset Pricing Model is to be held. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWsEJYPSw0k What is CAPM? What is the Capital Asset Pricing Model?
Views: 517707 MBAbullshitDotCom
Understanding treasury bills and bonds
The treasury bills and bonds; what are they? New Vision TV offers analyzed news content on trending stories in Uganda, be it politics, business, and the day today life This is broadcast in various shows such as The daily News bulletin, the hourly news updates, the business show called The Handshake and Music News show. Since Uganda is known as the Pearl of Africa, New Vision TV has a show that broadcasts Uganda’s beauty called the Pearl of Africa. https://www.facebook.com/thenewvision/ http://www.newvision.co.ug/ https://twitter.com/newvisionwire
Views: 6559 New Vision TV
Short Term High Yield Bonds
The current low interest rate environment means that bond investors have to take more risk in order to gain an attractive return on their invested money. The current low interest rates also present a risk that if interest rates and inflation rise in the future, then bond prices may fall and portfolios could suffer losses.
Views: 8298 hubbis
6 Disadvantages Of Us Treasury Bonds
1. Long-term investment: You might have to wait up to 30 years for this U.S. bond to mature. 2. Their yields tend to be relatively low. 3. In an inflationary environment, the return on principal is worth less than the initial investment. This issue is compounded by the traditionally low yields on Treasuries. 4. Restrictions and penalties: Restrictions and penalties might be associated with redeeming Treasury bonds before they mature. 5. If interest rates go up, then Treasury prices will go down, and in general, the longer the maturity of the Treasury security, the greater the drop will be. 6. Treasuries are a very low-risk investment, but they're not risk-free. The U.S. government has to take on new debt so that it can afford to pay off old debts, such as maturing bonds. It's possible, at least in theory, that Congress could refuse to approve any new debt, triggering a default.
Views: 70 Patel Vidhu
Warren Buffett - How Anyone can Invest and Become Rich
Website: https://primedlifestyle.com/ Instagram: Primed Berkshire Hathaway Annual report: http://www.berkshirehathaway.com/letters/2013ltr.pdf Warren Buffett's favorite book -The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham on Amazon: http://amzn.to/2AlojQc Tony Robbins Money Master the Game on Amazon: http://amzn.to/2zyz84n Audible 30 day free trail: https://goo.gl/x64Vb9 Warren Buffett - One of the most successful investor of all times with an estimated net worth of over 80 billion dollars to this date has shared his methods for investing. Having bought his first stock at 11 years of age and having $53,000 dollars to his name at 17, he sure knows a thing or two about this market. And even though he spent a lifetime developing his skills, he’s has shared some very straightforward advice about investing that anyone can take advantage of. Warren Buffett’s first rule is to simply think long term over short term. He might be going overboard with this concept and he is truly embracing it around his entire life. He still lives in the same house he bought in 1958 and is also working at the very same desk since 50 years back and doesn’t use a computer but traditional pen and paper. He’s been quoted saying he doesn’t throw anything away until he’s had it for at least 20-25 years. So thinking long term is natural for him and the ability to resist selling has proved to be very successful for him. So having that said the reason why he’s holding on to what he buys is because he does his homework and does so very well. He’s stated many times that he spends 80 % of his day reading and catching up with the latest news and what companies to invest in. He thinks about life and investing as learning as much as he can and reads between 600-1,000 pages every single day. However not many people have the time or money to read for 8 hours a day and invest a few billions in the biggest companies like Warren Buffet, and it’s not a strategy that anyone can apply and find success with. And I wanted to make a video explaining how absolutely anyone can invest and become rich without taking time to read and grasp what to invest in which is why I’m super excited to share this with you. So when reading the Berkshire Hathaway Annual report of 2013, one of the most interesting paragraphs I found was on page 20 where he gave a very simple and straightforward advice about investing. He says “My money is where my mouth is: What I advise here is essentially identical to certain instructions I’ve laid out in my will. So in his will he’s demanded that future of his family's money money should be invested such as this: Put 10% of the cash in short-term government bonds and 90% in a very low-cost S&P 500 index fund.” And he finishes it off by stating “I believe the trust’s long-term results from this policy will be superior to those attained by most investors” I told you it was straight forward. Don’t try to outplay the market but instead play with it. No man or machine can predict the ups and downs of the market, well except for Warren Buffett, so it would be foolish to try to beat it when you can simply join it. The very same formula was also mentioned in Tony Robbins book money master the game and index funds really seems to be the future of investments because the market will always rise in long term, and that’s essentially what you invest in - the market. The S&P 500 contains all the 500 largest companies that trade on NYSE and Nasdaq. Instead of picking stocks individually, you can now own a piece of all of the biggest companies such as Apple, Microsoft and Google. And investing in an index fund is very secure since a single company might go bankrupt, however the market will not. And you don’t have to stick to only the U.S market but could invest in the european and asian markets that’s also doing very well and you can even invest in global index funds to own a part of the biggest companies in the world. And for the other 10 %, the short-term government bonds is a very low risk low cost alternative that is also offered by vanguard amongst others. Short-term bonds are very attractive to investors because of they’re very stable and consistently rising, however the return tends to be smaller. And I’ll finish it off through Warren Buffett’s words: “The goal of the non-professional should not be to pick winners but should rather be to own a cross-section of businesses that in aggregate are bound to do well.” Music: Life of Riley by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1400054 Artist: http://incompetech.com/
Views: 1590799 Primed
Risk Free Rate
ZACH DE GREGORIO, CPA www.WolvesAndFinance.com Discussion of the theoretical concept of the "Risk Free Rate." This also provides an explanation of why people use US Treasuries as the Risk Free Rate and why so many people watch the Yield Curve for US Treasuries. The Risk Free Rate is a theoretical concept that stands for the one investment opportunity that is the most risk free. It is not entirely without risk. It is finding the rate of the most risk free opportunity, because this sets the benchmark for your financial analysis. Every opportunity then exists on a spectrum of risk, starting at the risk free rate. How you use this on a practical level, is you would use US treasuries. The US economy is very large, consistent economy, and is considered as the least risky alternative. Government securities are considered less risky than companies. Governments generally don’t go bankrupt (with a few notable exceptions). Government securities are based on the productivity of a country’s people, who pay taxes which pay the interest on bonds. If the government budget ever gets into trouble they can raise taxes which makes it a low risk investment. This is a generalization and I am not hyping US treasuries. The goal is to pick some security to use as a benchmark for the risk free rate. The point is that everything is interrelated in finance. As the risk free rate moves up and down, it impacts everything else in finance. Neither Zach De Gregorio or Wolves and Finance Inc. shall be liable for any damages related to information in this video. It is recommended you contact a CPA in your area for business advice.
Views: 3915 WolvesAndFinance
7 Painful Ways to Lose Money Investing in Bonds
Did you know that there are 7 different ways to lose money investing in bonds? That’s right, investing in bonds isn’t always a safe and low-risk investment. However, once you know and understand the risk associated with bond trading, then the chances of you losing money go down drastically. To download your FREE Report called, “The 7 Ways To Lose Money With Bonds”, check out: http://www.retirementthinktank.com/bondreport Now bonds have traditionally been viewed as a very safe way to create a steady stream of cash flow, and many brokers and financial advisors recommend bonds as part of a solid balance to any financial portfolio. And all of that is true…most of the time. The big issue with bond risk (and how people lose money with bonds) is when any of these 7 risk factors arise. And even worse, when any of the 7 risks combine at the same time, it can prove catastrophic. I will give you a basic review of the 7 different ways to lose money in bonds here: 1. Lack of Liquidity in bonds – Although the bond market is larger than the stock market in total value, there are far fewer bond traders and bond investors comparatively speaking. So when issues arise with a certain bond (like a city or municipality defaulting on their bonds, bankruptcy, etc), it can leave the average investor high and dry with no one to sell their bond to. 2. Interest Rate Fluctuations – Bond prices are inversely related to interest rates, so when interest rates rise, bond prices (the price that you buy and sell bonds) goes down. And with interest rates close to all-time lows today, this is a bubble just waiting to pop once interest rates start rising. And if they rise quickly, watch out bond prices! 3. Bond Creditworthiness – This is an important issue as the creditworthiness of the bond issuer determines the yield, and thus your risk/return. For instance, you might not get a great return on a United States Treasury bond, but you can sleep at night knowing there is little chance it will default. On the other hand, you can get hundreds of times more yield on a low-grade junk bond, but the chances of you losing money (or even all of your investment) go up significantly compared to a US Treasury bill. 4. Inflation / Hyperinflation – Generally speaking, inflation usually means higher interest rates. And since we know that interest rates are inversely related to bond prices, high inflation can destroy the value of your bond. Not to mention, in times of inflation the cost of everything (consumer goods) is going up, while your bond investment doesn’t. So higher inflation could render your bond interest negative after you factor inflation into the equation. 5. Reinvestment Risk – This risk pertains to the opposite issue of the others in that it occurs in times of a slowing economy, or a declining interest rate environment. When interest rates go down, bond investors are forced to reinvest their bond interest (and any return of principal) into new securities that will have lower rates of return. Of course this will reduce the overall income that is being generated by your bond portfolio. 6. Bond Fund “Backfire” – Bond funds have traditionally been considered very safe as they spread the bond risks out amongst many different bonds (versus an individual bond). And this is usually the case. However, bond funds can “backfire” when a bond manager starts replacing bonds as they mature in a rising interest rate environment. And if the bond portfolio loses enough value that investors start leaving the fund in droves, then the bond manager might have to start unloading high yielding bonds to meet the early redemption's. This doesn’t happen that often, but when it does, it is painful to all involved. 7. Making Bad Bond Assumptions – Finally, don’t ever make the assumption that your bond or bond fund is free of risk and can just cruise on auto-pilot without you ever having to review or check up on. This is where many bond investors get into trouble by thinking they can buy it and forget about it. Stay educated on what is going on with your bond, watch interest rates, and don’t chase bond yields! Finally, always get the advice of a licensed bond specialist to make sure that you never get burned by any of these bond risks. To download your FREE “7 Ways To Lose Money With Bonds” Report, go to http://www.retirementthinktank.com/bondreport Disclaimer: Nothing in this video or free report can be or should be construed as investment advice. This is purely educational and there is not enough information in here or the report to make educated investment decisions. Always consult with a financial advisor before making any investment decisions.
Views: 130467 Retirement Think Tank
Intro to the Bond Market
Most borrowers borrow through banks. But established and reputable institutions can also borrow from a different intermediary: the bond market. That’s the topic of this video. We’ll discuss what a bond is, what it does, how it’s rated, and what those ratings ultimately mean. First, though: what’s a bond? It’s essentially an IOU. A bond details who owes what, and when debt repayment will be made. Unlike stocks, bond ownership doesn’t mean owning part of a firm. It simply means being owed a specific sum, which will be paid back at a promised time. Some bonds also entitle holders to “coupon payments,” which are regular installments paid out on a schedule. Now—what does a bond do? Like stocks, bonds help raise money. Companies and governments issue bonds to finance new ventures. The ROI from these ventures, can then be used to repay bond holders. Speaking of repayments, borrowing through the bond market may mean better terms than borrowing from banks. This is especially the case for highly-rated bonds. But what determines a bond’s rating? Bond ratings are issued by agencies like Standard and Poor’s. A rating reflects the default risk of the institution issuing a bond. “Default risk” is the risk that a bond issuer may be unable to make payments when they come due. The higher the issuer’s default risk, the lower the rating of a bond. A lower rating means lenders will demand higher interest before providing money. For lenders, higher ratings mean a safer investment. And for borrowers (the bond issuers), a higher rating means paying a lower interest on debt. That said, there are other nuances to the bond market—things like the “crowding out” effect, as well as the effect of collateral on a bond’s interest rate. These are things we’ll leave you to discover in the video. Happy learning! Subscribe for new videos every Tuesday! http://bit.ly/1Rib5V8 Macroeconomics Course: http://bit.ly/1R1PL5x Ask a question about the video: http://bit.ly/29Q2f7d Next video: http://bit.ly/29WhXgC Office Hours video: http://bit.ly/29R04Ba Help us caption & translate this video! http://amara.org/v/QZ06/
Are You Going Too Short-Term in Your Bond Portfolio?
With the Federal Reserve raising interest rates over the past couple of years, short-term investments like treasury bills and CDs with maturities of under a year or so have become very popular with investors, and rightly so. Investors have gravitated to the part of the market where they can get more yield with less interest rate risk over time. But one of the concerns that we have is that investors may be getting too short-term in their bond portfolios. Kathy Jones explains why in this week’s episode of Bond Market Today. Subscribe to our channel: https://www.youtube.com/charlesschwab Click here for more insights: http://www.schwab.com/insights/ (1118-84TG)
Views: 5168 Charles Schwab
What are Treasury Bills? | T-Bills in India -  Features, Importance, Types | T Bills Explained
Treasury Bills or T Bills are basically instruments for short term borrowing issued by the Central Government. They have the maturities of less than 1 year and are part of money market in India. Lets directly go to Features of these T-Bills– 1. Only central Govt can issue T-Bills 2. Used by Govt to manage their short term liquidity 3. They have assured yield and negligible risk of default 4. Issued in primary auction conducted by RBI on behalf of the government 5. Treasury bills are issued at a discount and are redeemed at par. 6. This Discount rate or interest rate is market driven Make your Free Financial Plan today: http://wealth.investyadnya.in/Login.aspx Yadnya Book - 108 Questions & Answers on Mutual Funds & SIP - Available here: Amazon: https://goo.gl/WCq89k Flipkart: https://goo.gl/tCs2nR Infibeam: https://goo.gl/acMn7j Notionpress: https://goo.gl/REq6To Find us on Social Media and stay connected: Facebook Page - https://www.facebook.com/InvestYadnya Facebook Group - https://goo.gl/y57Qcr Twitter - https://www.twitter.com/InvestYadnya
How to calculate the bond price and yield to maturity
This video will show you how to calculate the bond price and yield to maturity in a financial calculator. If you need to find the Present value by hand please watch this video :) http://youtu.be/5uAICRPUzsM There are more videos for EXCEL as well Like and subscribe :) Please visit us at http://www.i-hate-math.com Thanks for learning
Views: 310241 I Hate Math Group, Inc
How to Invest in Bonds & Debentures? - Hindi
Let us learn how to invest in Bonds and Debentures in hindi. You can invest in Corporate Bonds or Debentures, Government Bonds or Tax Saving Bonds of Public Sector Units (PSU). There are 2 main ways - (1) Through Debt Mutual Funds and (2) Directly. In this video, we will understand all avenues through which you can invest in Bonds and Debentures and what kind of returns you can expect. You can choose to invest in corporate debentures, government securities or tax saving bonds like REC Bonds, NHAI Bonds and PFC Bonds. Related Videos: Bonds vs Debentures: https://youtu.be/BdMg5RmMj_0 Shares vs Bonds/Debentures: https://youtu.be/afSACc6c2c0 Types of Bonds and Debentures: https://youtu.be/5YN_Uo7stms हिंदी में जानें कि bonds और debentures में invest कैसे करें। आप Public Sector Units (PSU) के Corporate Bonds or Debentures, Government Bonds or Tax Saving Bonds में Invest कर सकते हैं। 2 main तरीके हैं - (1) Debt Mutual Funds के माध्यम से और (2) Directly। इस वीडियो में, हम उन सभी avenues को समझेंगे जिनके माध्यम से आप Bonds और Debentures में invest कर सकते हैं और आप किस तरह के returns की उम्मीद कर सकते हैं। Share this video: https://youtu.be/hC9OsIzAoEk Subscribe To Our Channel and Get More Finance Tips: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsNxHPbaCWL1tKw2hxGQD6g To access more learning resources on finance, check out www.assetyogi.com In this video, we have explained: How to invest in bonds and debentures? How to invest in debt mutual funds to get exposure to bonds and debentures indirectly? How to buy government bonds? What kind of returns you can expect in different types of bonds? What are the avenues through which we can invest in debentures? What do tax saving bonds mean? What are the main methods to invest in bonds and debentures? What is the indirect way of investing? How to invest in tax-saving bonds? What are the advantages and disadvantage in an indirect way of investing i.e. through debt mutual funds and hybrid mutual funds? What is the direct way of investing? Are government bonds traded on the stock market? Why the interest rates on tax-saving bonds is less? How to invest in corporate bonds? What does buyback facility mean? Make sure to like and share this video. Other Great Resources AssetYogi – http://assetyogi.com/ Follow Us: Google Plus – https://plus.google.com/+assetyogi-ay Twitter - http://twitter.com/assetyogi Facebook – https://www.facebook.com/assetyogi Linkedin - http://www.linkedin.com/company/asset-yogi Pinterest - http://pinterest.com/assetyogi/ Instagram - http://instagram.com/assetyogi Hope you liked this video in Hindi on “How to invest in Bonds and Debentures"
Views: 14494 Asset Yogi
Interest Rate Correlation: Australia Government Securities vs US Treasuries 1996 to 2016
This video compares forward rate curves for Australia Commonwealth Government Securities and US Treasuries. There are 16 days of bad data in the Australian series due to errors via Bloomberg.
Should You Invest in Bonds?
Want To Generate Passive Income And Achieve Financial Freedom? Join Our Free Value Investing Masterclass Today: https://bit.ly/2qXPpsS Download Our FREE Value Investing Investing ETF Guidebook : http://bit.ly/2zsZtjo In this video I will cover another common question people ask me: "Should I Invest In Bonds?" Firstly, a bond is a debt investment in which an investor loans money to an entity (typically corporate or governmental) which borrows the funds for a defined period of time at a variable or fixed interest rate. In simple terms, some companies wanted more funds to grow and there are many ways to do it. One of the ways is to borrow from someone and in this case investors who buy the bonds. Since the company is borrowing from someone, it’s fair that the company has to give some form of returns to the investors (or lenders), thus the fixed interest rate. There are 2 main baskets of bond: a) Government Bonds b) Corporate Bonds My take? Unlike corporate bonds, government bonds are considered risk free as they are guaranteed by the government, it is important to understand that they still carry the interest rate risk. Interest rate is relevant for both government and corporate bonds. As the market interest rate rising, the real value of bond will decrease and vice versa. In addition to interest rate risk, corporate bonds are subjected to event risk. A company might face unforeseen circumstances which undermined their ability to pay the interest, – or repay the principal. This risk is highly depending on the company ability to generate cash. At the end of the day, just like any other forms of investments - don’t go in blindly hoping that your money will grow. You should always evaluate beforehand to avoid losing money! ★☆★ Join me in my FREE Live Masterclass and I'll answer your questions, teach you how to evaluate and invest safely in person: https://bit.ly/2qXPpsS ★☆★ SUBSCRIBE TO VALUE INVESTING ACADEMY YOUTUBE CHANNEL NOW ★☆★ https://www.youtube.com/user/ValueInvesting101?sub_confirmation=1 Check out these Top Trending Playlist: 1.) Is It Possible To Turn $10K To One Million Dollars? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7pNGzE6jiY&t=5s 2.) Best Value Investing Singapore - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r02t9h4krx4&t=89s 3.) VIA Investing Programme Testimonials 2018 { Part A } - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHZMrW1D370&t=2s Value Investing Academy (VIA) was established in 2010 by Mr Cayden Chang with the vision of “We Care to Make you a Better Investor VIA Financial Education and Technologies”. We have understood the importance of having Value Investing Course and Value Investing in Singapore and in other parts of the world, as such, we have set up VIA with an intention of making everyone a better investor. This is why we have delivered our signature Value Investing Programme (VIP) to more than 40,000 people in 11 cities across Asia such as: Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Penang, Phnom Penh, Yangon, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Taiwan and Bangkok. (MORE YET TO COME!) Don’t Miss Your Chance To Join A FREE Value Investing Masterclass today (worth $199) - Register Here: https://bit.ly/2qXPpsS - Filling Up Fast!! ** Limited Seats Only! ★☆★ CONNECT WITH US ON SOCIAL MEDIA ★☆★ Website: https://www.ValueInvestingAcademy.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/valueinvestingacademy/ YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/ValueInvesting101
Views: 280 ValueInvesting101
Treasury Bills: How To Calculate  Your Earnings
The interest rates on Treasury bills have become so attractive that investment savvy individuals no longer want to keep their money with the banks but have been requesting that their banks invest their deposits in Treasury bills on their behalf. See more interesting Business Updates on Bounce News App - http://bit.ly/BounceNewsNg FACEBOOK https://www.facebook.com/BounceNewsNigeria TWITTER https://twitter.com/BounceNewsNg INSTAGRAM https://www.instagram.com/bouncenewsng/
Views: 7293 Bounce News Nigeria
Corp Bonds, Government Bonds or Treasury Bills
Disclosure - Government bonds and Treasury Bills are guaranteed by the US Government as to the timely payment of principal and interest and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. The market value of corporate bonds will fluctuate, and if the bond is sold prior to maturity, the investor's yield may differ from the advertised yield. Corporate bonds are subject to the default risk of the issuer. Daniel Romero, Melissa Levin and Greg Levin are Registered Representatives with and offer Securities & fee based asset management through LPL Financial a Registered Investment Advisor and Member FINRA/SIPC. Daniel's CA Insurance Lic #:OC54180 - Melissa's CA Insurance Lic #:0C56086 - Greg's CA Insurance Lic #:0F08519 Click on my web link for a list of states I'm licensed. www.DanRomero.com LPL Tracking #602008
Views: 493 Dan Romero
12 Oct 08 Government bonds and currency risk
Anthony Yuen talked about government bonds and currency risk. The show was broadcasted on 12 Oct 08.
Views: 130 koontung
Advantages of Investing in Municipal Bonds
This video discusses the advantages of investing in municipal bonds: namely, the historically lower risk of default (relative to corporate bonds) and tax-exempt nature of most municipal bonds. The video provides an example to show how the after-tax return of a municipal bond can be higher than a corporate bond that has a higher pretax yield. The video also demonstrates why municipal bonds are more attractive to high-income investors by showing that the tax-equivalent yield of a municipal bond increases as a person's tax rate increases. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 9805 Edspira
Investments: Treasury Bills and Bonds (Centonomy 101)
Module 6 of centonomy 101 tackles investments especially treasury bills and bonds. There are various ways to save and invest and its best to know how to do it. Treasury bills and bonds are advertised but not understood, in this class we will tackle this . For more information contact us on 0700036433.
Views: 2593 Centonomy
FRM: Treasury STRIPS
P-STRIPS and C-STRIPS are popular because: 1. They can be combined or re-constructed into any required sequence of cash flows, and 2. They are more sensitive to interest rates (i.e., higher duration) than coupon-bearing bonds (all other things being equal). For more financial risk videos, visit our website! http://www.bionicturtle.com
Views: 29588 Bionic Turtle
Investing in Treasury Bonds, Notes and Bills
- The differences in various treasury investments. - Acting as a bank for the federal government. - The safest investment, insured by the federal government. https://www.treasurydirect.gov Investing in Bonds For Dummies https://amzn.to/2DfmvM3 Step by Step Bond Investing https://amzn.to/2WTJ3cj Guide To Investing in Gold & Silver https://amzn.to/2uSaxmZ How to Invest in Gold and Silver https://amzn.to/2HW1ART Support the BrainFood Channel content. Thank You. https://paypal.me/BrainFoodChannel https://patreon.com/invite/ylxwog DISCLAIMER: This video and description contains affiliate links, which means that if you click on one of the product links, I’ll receive a small commission. This helps support the channel and allows us to continue to make videos like this. Thank you for the support! The BrainFood Channel is for entertainment purposes only, invest at your own discretion.
Views: 286 BrainFood Channel
What is the Efficient Frontier? How pros use it to increase profits.
What is the efficient frontier? It shows you the best portfolio mix between stocks and bonds. You are probably familiar with the phrase, “No pain, no gain” if you work out in a gym. Or the phrase, “Nothing ventured, nothing gained” when it comes to business. This basically means that you have to take some risk, to get some reward. This is also true in investing, that risk is proportional to returns. You usually get higher returns if you are willing to take higher risk. For example, the stock market has higher returns than butting your money in treasury bonds, but it also means you take on higher risk. Or does it? Modern portfolio theory has a way where you can have your cake and eat it too, meaning, you can get a higher return and lower your risk is certain circumstances. If you put $100 in a savings account at a bank in the united states, which essentially has no risk, because it is FDIC insured, meaning the US government guarantees that your $100 will never go down in value. The average interest you will get in it in the U.S. is 0.1%. This means that at the end of the year, your savings account will be worth $100.10. If you put your money in the US stock market, which can have high risk, meaning it can fluctuate quite a bit, and nothing is guaranteed, at the end of the year, you could have a portfolio value of as much as $138 as would have happened in 1995, or $63 as would have happened in 2008. This fluctuation in value of principal is called risk. But on average, if you didn’t touch the money, you would have an annual return of about 7%. After an average 10 year period, your $100 would be worth $200 if invested in stocks. In the bank after 10 years, your $100 would be worth a whopping $101.05. Where you invest depends on your tolerance for risk. If you think you would pull all your hair out watching the stock market drop the value of $100 to $63 because you needed the money for something, then the stock market is not for you, and you should park your money at the bank. But you should also then not complain about the fact that you only make $1.05 in interest over 10 years. This is just the way life and money works. Low risk, low reward. But not every risk level has the same reward. You can get higher rewards with the same level of risk. This is part of modern portfolio theory which was developed by a guy named Harry Markowitz in 1952. This is called the “Efficient Frontier.” And here is what that means. As I said earlier, as risk goes up, so does the return. Let’s look at this risk/return curve. Return is measured in average percentage annual return, and risk is measured as the standard deviation from the average. The larger the standard deviation, the more volatile the portfolio. If the highest risk portfolio would consist of 100% stocks as in an S&P 500 index fund, then as bonds are added to this portfolio, in this case 10 year U.S. Treasury bonds, which have very little risk, the risk starts to come down, as you would expect, until it reaches a low point. The line representing the highest return you can get at any specific risk is called the “efficient frontier” But, surprisingly this line has an inflection point, as more and more bonds are added, it curves backwards, meaning it has higher risk with a lower return when the bond percentage of the portfolio goes above a certain point, and continues up to 100% bonds. This means that, in fact, having a modest percentage of stocks actually REDUCES the risk verses an all-bond portfolio.So it turns out that even though bonds are lower risk than stocks, a 100% bond portfolio is NOT the lowest risk portfolio. The inflection point is actually the lowest risk portfolio. So where does this inflection point occur – at a portfolio mix of about 20% stocks and 80% bonds. And in fact, even a 25/75 mix of stocks and bonds has a slightly lower risk than a 100% bond portfolio. So you should definitely keep this in mind, when you are making your investment decision. Why do investments behave this way? Because of the slight inverse relationship of bonds vs. stocks. In other words, stocks can go up in value when bonds go down, so they provide a diversification effect which actually reduces the risk of an all-bond portfolio. As I said in an earlier video – diversification is the key to lowering risk. Your mother was right - never put all your eggs in one basket.
Views: 268 Arvin Ash
What are TIPS - Treasury Inflation Protected Securities
What are treasury inflation protected securities? TIPS are government bond investments that are adjusted by inflation. SO if you believe inflation is going to be high, TIPS could be a solid investment. ★☆★ Subscribe: ★☆★ https://goo.gl/qkRHDf Investing Basics Playlist https://goo.gl/ky7CJq Investing Books I like: The Intelligent Investor - https://amzn.to/2PVhfEL Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits - https://amzn.to/2DAV8h9 Understanding Options - https://amzn.to/2T9gFSp Little Book of Common Sense Investing - https://amzn.to/2DfFGG2 How to Value Exchange-Traded Funds - https://amzn.to/2PWSkRg A Great Book on Building Wealth - https://amzn.to/2T8AKZ1 Dale Carnegie - https://amzn.to/2DDAk8w Effective Speaking - https://amzn.to/2DBncAT Equipment I Use: Microphone - https://amzn.to/2T7JxL6 Video Editing Software - https://amzn.to/2RQM1vE Thumbnail Editing Software - https://amzn.to/2qIUAgP Laptop - https://amzn.to/2T4xA8Z DISCLAIMER: I am not a financial advisor. These videos are for educational purposes only. Investing of any kind involves risk. Your investments are solely your responsibility. It is crucial that you conduct your own research. I am merely sharing my opinion with no guarantee of gains or losses on investments. Please consult your financial or tax professional prior to making an investment. #LearnToInvest #StocksToWatch #StockMarket
Views: 2428 Learn to Invest
How Do I Make Money Buying Bonds? | Your Money, Your Choices by Susan Daley
How do company bonds work in practice and how exactly do you make money on your investments? Watch to find out. That’s the topic for today’s video. I’m Susan Daley and this is Your Money, Your Choices. ------------------- Visit PWL Capital: https://goo.gl/uPcXg7 Follow PWL Capital on: - Twitter: https://twitter.com/PWLCapital - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/PWLCapital - LinkedIN: https://www.linkedin.com/company/pwl-capital Follow Susan Daley on - Twitter: https://twitter.com/_SusanDaley - LinkedIN: https://linkedin.com/in/daleysusan
Views: 18775 Susan Daley
Buy Bonds Over Stocks?
Let’s talk about stocks and bonds and the different returns we should get on them. The 10 year treasury bond has just moved to a yield of 3%. This means that we get 3% if loan money to the government for 10 years. It’s known as one of the safest investments because the US government can always print more money to repay it’s debts. To get the stock return we divide the earnings of the S & P 500 by it’s price. This is a method that was taught by Ben Graham. So currently stocks are yielding 4.17% through this method. • Stocks = 4.17% • Bonds = 3% If you want to learn about Investing and Personal finance then subscribe here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCmHm0w-JJfC2Ll1Of_WObAQ?view_as=subscriber // Books I Recommend… ▸ Investing: https://goo.gl/BRPh3D ▸ Wealth Mindset: https://goo.gl/RcSjcx ▸ Personal Finance: https://goo.gl/yXiH2Y or https://goo.gl/TLE5fV ▸ Personal Development: https://goo.gl/AVzKqt ▸ Entrepreneurship: https://goo.gl/wbWcWM ___ // YouTube Recommended Equipment ▸MY MICROPHONE (VOICE OVER): https://goo.gl/dLYtzr ▸MY MICROPHONE (CLIP ON): https://goo.gl/kfoMVZ ▸ ANIMATION SOFTWARE: VideoScribe ▸ CAMERA (Not needed for animation): https://goo.gl/PoJLGp ▸ TRIPOD (Not needed for animation): https://goo.gl/e2zqmB ▸ LIGHTING (Not needed for animation) : https://goo.gl/JAxCLj ▸ VIDEO EDITING SOFTWARE (Not needed for animation) : https://goo.gl/FSJYkR ▸ THUMBNAIL EDITING SOFTWARE: https://goo.gl/fw5KCg ▸ LAPTOP: https://goo.gl/UuPq6V ▸ DESKTOP: https://goo.gl/7MiVwG ___ // My Social Media ▸ Instagram | https://www.instagram.com/cooperacademy1/ || @cooperacademy1 ▸ Twitter | https://twitter.com/cooperacademy1 || @cooperacademy1 ▸ Facebook | https://www.facebook.com/cooperacademy1/ DISCLAIMER: It's important to note that I am not a financial adviser and you should do your own research when picking stocks to invest in. These are just some of my viewpoints, by no means would I recommend watching one YouTube video and then immediately buying that stock. Do your homework and due diligence before buying! This video was made for educational and entertainment purposes only. This channel is funded by donations from subscribers like you! Every donation is greatly appreciated! ➤➤➤ https://www.paypal.me/cooperacademy
Webinar on Introduction to T-Bill & G-Sec Bonds
Webinar on Introduction to T-Bill & G-Sec Bonds with Onkar Phadnis - Chief Manager, New Products, NSE and Ashish Asthana - Digital Evangelist, HDFC securities Webinar Overview - - Introduction to G-sec bonds (for long term) & T-Bills (for short term) - Understand benefits of these Fixed Income Government products - Learn how to apply online on our trading platform
Views: 611 HDFC securities
Return on Investment:Treasuries - Part 8
https://youtu.be/e8_qEgg-lPo Looking for a good return on investment? In this Investment Comparison video series we will compare the various investments types to investing in real estate. Video number 8 looks at the most Treasury Bonds and Notes. A good return on investment requires a good investing vehicle. All investors should weight risk vs. reward in their investing decisions. Watch this 14 video series to see which repeatedly comes out on top. Remember, real estate doesn't have to be complicated. With Simple Acquisitions, it's smart, secured and simple! http://www.simpleacquisitions.com/
Municipal Bond Investment
http://www.profitableinvestingtips.com/bond-investing/municipal-bond-investment Municipal Bond Investment By www.ProfitableInvestingTips.com Municipal bond investment may be an attractive option for investors in the coming year. When the Fed eventually cuts its quantitative easing stimulus plan rates will go up. That will make bonds attractive. However, with higher interest rates come higher taxes. Municipal bonds have the advantage of not carrying a Federal Tax burden. Municipal bond investment may be a good conservative version of today's value investing. Municipal Bonds A municipal bond is issued by a municipality. That is local government or government agencies, not the state or federal government. Issuers can include school districts, airports, utilities, and more. The bonds can be a general obligation of the municipality to repay or may be tied to an income stream such as taxes assessed at an airport, or property tax assessed to support a school district. What makes municipal bonds attractive to those in high tax brackets is that their interest is typically exempt from federal taxes and often free of state or local taxes as well. When an investor looks at the return from taxable corporate bonds or dividends on dividend stocks he or she will calculate the return on investment after taxes when comparing the investment to a municipal bond investment. Safety of Municipal Bond Investment Municipal bond investment is historically pretty safe. That should be said as the headlines are full of news on huge state and local deficits. However, over the last decades the default rate on municipal bonds has been less than 1% while the default rate on corporate bonds has been over 10%. Nevertheless, municipal bond investment in more than one municipality in order to balance risk is not a bad idea. A fundamental analysis of municipal bonds should include a number of specifics. Not all municipal bonds are tax exempt! A bond offering will typically come with certification by a law firm that the bonds are tax exempt and to what degree. If you as the investor do not live in the municipality or state where the bonds are issued you will probably not be eligible for a local or state tax exempt status, if it is part of the bond. Bonds are rated by agencies such as Moody's or Standard and Poor's. To the extent that there is a risk of default it will be wise to make sure that the bonds have an investment grade rating. As of 2008 there had never been a default on a Moody's or Standard and Poor's Aaa/AAA municipal bond or a Standard and Poor's AA rated bond. Investment grade municipals in general have a historic rate of default of less than a fifth of a percent. As with all investments the investor should sit down with paper and pencil (or at the computer) and calculate the return on investment of municipal bonds versus other investments considering the relatively low level of risk involved. Depending upon if the stimulus program goes away rates may or may not rise. If so municipal bond investment may be an attractive vehicle for those soon to be paying higher taxes. http://youtu.be/x4jjzIC7gIs
Views: 499 InvestingTip
Bonds - Understanding Rating Agencies
Many people blame the 2008 financial crash on bad bond ratings. Could it happen again? Should you be concerned? Watch this video to learn what ratings agencies look for when determining bond risk. SUBSCRIBE to learn everything you need to know about trading: https://ota.buzz/2JRtxbd SIGN UP for a FREE Half-day class! http://ota.buzz/youtube Want to learn more useful trading and investing tips? Check out these playlists: - Best of: Investing Strategies: https://ota.buzz/2HbqN7U - Best of: Expert Trader Sam Seiden: https://ota.buzz/2Ej8mLp LET'S CONNECT! — https://www.facebook.com/OnlineTradingAcademy/ — https://twitter.com/TradingAcademy — https://www.linkedin.com/company/online-trading-academy/
Tuesday Forex Traders Market Update. 24th April 2018.
The 10 Year US Treasury Yield was the headline act on Monday as I expected with a lack of high impacting economic data released and a market that is extremely nervous about the 10 Year Yield climbing over 3%. As I explained in Monday’s report if the 3% level is breached it could be a trigger point for traders to once again abandon stocks and move money into fixed income such as bonds, gold, the Yen and Swiss Franc. Why is 3% such a key level? The US Government just like all Governments issues bonds to raise money and anyone can buy government bonds. When you lend a government such as the US government money they agree to pay you a return on investment per annum for the period of the bond which can be from 1 year to 30 years and anything in between. Depending on the demand for bonds and how it considers the trustworthiness of a government to pay bond holders will set the interest the government has to pay, this happens simply through supply and demand. To keep things simple the bottom line is this. Traders pushed up the US stock market 22% in 2017 and there is no way we are going to see a repeat of this performance again and here is why. Interest rates are rising in the US and as interest rates rise so does the return a US Government bond pays. If you are sitting on a nice windfall from a great run up in US stocks over the past few years you will likely want to lock in some profit now and diversify some of your money into a guaranteed fixed income return. What is paying a nice healthy and potentially higher and higher fixed return? US Government bonds with the US 10 Year bond yield (annual return) now paying 2.97%. This may not seem like a high rate of return but keep in mind 2.97% guaranteed is better than speculating on whether or not the stock market is going to continue to rise. This is how a lot of trader inside hedge funds will be looking at the market this year and when the US 10 Year Treasury Yield does close above 3% and it will, and continues higher we are going to see stock prices fall sharply and we are going to see the Yen and Swiss Franc rally strongly. This will continue to drag on the Aussie and Kiwi Dollars which have essentially given up the ghost in the past few trading sessions falling below key support levels. Please watch my daily video update today so I can show you where the key levels are and how I will look to short both currencies in coming days and weeks. Today is important for the Aussie Dollar with 1st quarter inflation figures set for release at 11.30am AEST. If the data misses estimates and inflation is lower than leading economist expected in the first quarter then the Aussie Dollar is going to continue to make new lows. I will be focusing on this data announcement in my daily video update today on Fundamental Facts. #investing #wealth #finance #money #moneymarkets #trading #trader #fxtrading #forex #forextrading #forexsignals #currencies #fxtrader #fxsignals #bitcoin #cryptocurrencies #cryptos #forexcoach #stockmarket #letsgo #sunrise #ltggoldrock #ltg #lovetrading #noosa #noosaheads
Views: 348 Train With Andrew
3 Steps to Easy Bond Investing [Market-Proof Your Portfolio]
Stop missing out on your best opportunity for cash flow and safe returns. Learn the secret to investing in bonds and get started now with Step-by-Step Bond Investing https://amzn.to/2MqKE5d Bond investments are way underrated by investors with less than 2% of investors holding any fixed-income at all in their portfolio. That’s despite the fact that bonds provide rock-solid cash flow and safe returns compared to stocks. In fact, bonds have actually beaten the return on stocks during the last decade. Now I love investing in stocks just as much as the next person and I’m not saying you should ditch equities but bonds is going to be the secret asset you add to your portfolio that helps reach your financial goals. I’m going to walk you through three steps to investing in bonds to protect your money while still producing that return and I’ll show you how to find bonds in which to invest on any online site. I’m then going to share my favorite bond investing strategy, something that will make all this super easy so make sure you stick around to the end of the video. From explaining the basics of bond investing to giving you tips for investing in bonds, this video will give you all the tools to diversifying your portfolio and creating consistent returns even in a bear market. - Why bond investing could be the smartest investment decision you make - Stocks vs Bonds: how bond returns actually beat stocks - What happens to bonds when interest rates rise - 3 Steps to investing in bonds - How to pick bond investments and a fixed-income strategy for consistent cash flow SUBSCRIBE to create the financial future you deserve with videos on beating debt, making more money and making your money work for you. https://peerfinance101.com/FreeMoneyVideos Joseph Hogue, CFA spent nearly a decade as an investment analyst for institutional firms and banks. He now helps people understand their financial lives through debt payoff strategies, investing and ways to save more money. He has appeared on Bloomberg and on sites like CNBC and Morningstar. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation and is a veteran of the Marine Corps. #investing #stocks #investment
Bond Market Looking Shaky!
Join the Elite Investor Club at - http://www.eliteinvestorclub.com/ When I interviewed Money Week’s Tim Price recently, he described the current bon market as bonkers, asking us to take an investment risk for a zero or even a negative return. Those in the know increasingly feel that the bond market could be about to trigger the next big crash. It’s a truism in financial markets that all asset prices eventually revert to their long term mean average. After a forty year bull market that has brought prices so high that yields are now negative, we have to ask if the market is overdue a serious correction. And there’s more than just the weight of history behind the argument. New regulations have made it increasingly expensive for banks to hold bonds in stock. When they have a good stock they can act as a market maker. This means they can smooth the peaks and troughs in demand between buyers and sellers, a bit like a shock absorber smoothes the ride in your car. But the rules of the game have changed. Tighter bank regulation introduced since the last crisis is having unintended consequences. It’s making it much more expensive for banks to hold bonds in stock, so they’ve drastically cut back. Have you ever driven a go kart that is two inches off the ground with no shock absorbers? I have, and it kept my osteopath in work for weeks. We got just a hint of what might be in store in October. The normally pedestrian ten year US Treasury bond is probably the most important instrument in the financial world. It’s yield plunged from two point two per cent down to one point nine per cent then back to two point two per cent all in the space of fifteen minutes. The reason? A lack of liquidity in the market. No stock at the bank. No shock absorber. The result is known as a Flash Crash. Then we’ve got the phenomenon of programmed selling. The ability to buy or sell any quantity of an asset at the click of a mouse is impressive enough. But sophisticated hedge funds go way further than that, operating in nanoseconds. When a lot of people want to sell and there are no buyers, prices can crash in an instant. Any lack of liquidity will be massively amplified. The Royal Bank Of Scotland is saying that liquidity in the US credit market has gone down a scary ninety per cent in the last decade. It’s something that the average investor will never see or be aware of, until the crash happens. And it may not be government bonds that trigger the crash. There’s been a deluge of corporate bonds in recent years, up from a hundred and fifty six billion pounds worth issued in two thousand and five to two hundred and sixty nine billion last year. With earnings falling in many American companies there could be panic selling of bonds issued by those companies or at least some real challenges in them raising further finance that could cause cashflow problems in their operations. And finally there’s our old friends the banks themselves. As big investors in the bond markets they are leveraged within an inch of their lives. Even with the higher capital ratios imposed by the latest Basel requirements they’d only need their holdings to decline in value by three and a half to four per cent to wipe out their balance sheets. That would mean a visit to the politicians, cap in hand and with an uncharacteristically humble look on their faces, to request Bailout two point zero. Then we’ve gone full circle with the real victim being the good old taxpayer. Yup, you and I could soon be footing the bill all over again. If you’re buying the BS that everything is once again hunky dory in the world’s financial markets, be very careful out there!
Views: 805 Elite Investor TV
Bond Pricing, Valuation, Formulas, and Functions in Excel
Premium Course: https://www.teachexcel.com/premium-courses/68/idiot-proof-forms-in-excel?src=youtube Excel Forum: https://www.teachexcel.com/talk/microsoft-office?src=yt Excel Tutorials: https://www.teachexcel.com/src=yt This tutorial will show you how to calculate bond pricing and valuation in excel. This teaches you how to do so through using the NPER() PMT() FV() RATE() and PV() functions and formulas in excel. To follow along with this tutorial and download the spreadsheet used and or to get free excel macros, keyboard shortcuts, and forums, go to: http://www.TeachMsOffice.com
Views: 187573 TeachExcel
CowryWise micro savings service opens high yield government bonds to everyday Nigerians
Remember minesweeper? Here you can play it: https://minesweeper-online.com xD Click here for a Guide on Law of Attraction http://bit.ly/LawOfAttractionGuidance daily tech news, if you want to subscribe here you go: http://bit.ly/DailyTechNewsSubscription In emerging market countries where economic volatility is a way of life, there aren’t a lot of relatively safe options for members of the burgeoning middle class to park their money.For instance, countries like Nigeria have experienced a tremendous growth in the number of citizens entering the middle class, which now accounts for about 23 percent of the population (it’s around 50 percent in the U.S.), according to a recent article citing the African Development Bank.While Nigeria now faces some significant headwinds from a weak domestic currency (the naira), high interest rates and a manufacturing recession, there are ways that local investment can both protect the wealth that’s been created and encourage investment domestically to potentially spur development.At least, that’s the conclusion that college friends Razaq Ahmed and Edward Popoola came to while they were thinking about opportunities for new financial services options in their home country of Nigeria.The two men, Ahmed with a background in finance and Popoola in computer science, are launching a company called CowryWise that gives Nigerian investors a way to save their money by investing in high-yield government bonds. The rates on those products are high enough to absorb the wild swings in value of the naira and still provide a healthy return for investors, according to Ahmed.Set to present at this year’s demo day from Y Combinator, CowryWise is one of a number of startups that Y Combinator has backed coming from the African continent, and an example of the wellspring of entrepreneurial talent that is flourishing in sub-Saharan Africa.Using CowryWise, a customer would just have to sign up with their email address and phone number and link their bank account up to the CowryWise platform.There are already roughly 57 million savings accounts in Nigeria and 32 million unique bank users. By investing in the bonds, these savers gain access to interest rates that range between 10 percent and 17 percent, according to Ahmed.“The bonds... are similar to the treasuries issued by the U.S. government, which is A-rated,” says Ahmed. Even if there were foreign currency risk from investing in the naira, the inflation rate is currently around 11 percent, according to Ahmed. Given that most of the bonds are yielding interest rates on the higher end, it’s just a better deal for consumers, he said.“There’s more value in keeping the money in government treasury bills” than in the bank, says Ahmed.For Ahmed and Popoola, the decision to launch CowryWise was a way to bring investment opportunities to a retail investor that hadn’t been able to access the best that the financial system in Nigeria had to offer.To target these retail investors meant leveraging technology to scale quickly and cheaply across the country. The two men started developing their service in January and tested it in February and March with friends and family.CowryWise isn’t without competitors. Another Nigerian company, Piggybank, recently raised .1 million for its own automated savings solution. Like CowryWise, Piggybank also taps into government bonds to offer better rates to its investors.That company already has 53,000 registered users — who have saved in excess of million since 2016, according to a release.There are subtle differences between the two. Piggybank touts its ability to save through bonds, but it is primarily working with banks to get Nigerians saving money. CowryWise is using Meristem Financial (Ahmed’s old employer) as the asset manager for its investments into the bond market.Another difference is the time customers’ funds are locked up. Piggybank has a three-month savings period required before investors can withdraw funds, while CowryWise will let its customers withdraw cash immediately, according to this teardown of the two services.Ultimately, there’s a large enough market for multiple players, and a need for better financial services, according to Ahmed.“We kept having interest from retail investors on why they want to do micro-savings and micro-investment, but they didn’t have the required capital,” Ahmed says. “That was the major reason for staring the company. Why not democratize the assets? And make them available in investments and savings in this traditional instrument?”
Views: 127 Daily Tech News
The Bond Yield Curve and Risk Factors
The Bond Yield Curve and Risk Factors Once you know what a bond is and how a bond works, you need to learn about the external risks that exist for people who choose to make money with bonds. This is best shown with what is called the bond yield curve. What are the risks that can affect a bond's value? Let me explain. Introduction to Bonds - https://claytrader.com/videos/how-bonds-work-and-make-you-money/ What Is Inflation? - https://claytrader.com/videos/what-is-inflation-what-causes-it/
Views: 506 ClayTrader
Class 303 - "Investment Segmentation"
Hello and welcome to Class 303 - "Investment Segmentation", or as it is sometimes referred to, "Growth vs. Value, Large vs. Small, What to Make of it All?". The purpose of this class is to discuss segmentations given to describe investments. Disclosures: [a] Government bonds and Treasury bills are guaranteed by the U.S. Government as to the timely payment of principal and interest, and, if held to maturity, offer a fixed rate of return and fixed principal value. [b] Bonds are subject to market and interest risk if sold prior to maturity. Bond values will decline as interest rates rise and bonds are subject to availability and change in price. [c] Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal. [d] The prices of small and mid-cap stocks are generally more volatile than large cap stocks. [e] Alternative investments may not be suitable for all investors and should be considered as an investment for the risk capital portion of the investor's portfolio. The strategies employed in the management of alternative investments may accelerate the velocity of potential losses. [f] International investing involves special risks such as currency fluctuation and political instability and may not be suitable for all investors. [g] There is no guarantee that a diversified portfolio will enhance overall returns or outperform a non-diversified portfolio. Diversification does not protect against market risk. Rethin(k) 401(k), Home of 401(k) University http://www.rethink401k.net/education/employee/advanced/class303/ 2116 Parkwood Dr., Bedford, TX 76021 (817) 684-8100 Securities offered through LPL Financial, Member FINRA/SIPC http://www.finra.org/, http://www.sipc.org/. Third-party posts found on this profile do not reflect the view of LPL Financial and have not been reviewed by LPL Financial as to accuracy or completeness. For a list of states in which we are registered to do business, please visit http://www.rethink401k.net/.
Views: 89 Rethin(k) 401(k)
Weekly Update #64 - High Yield Bonds
*Script:* In Round portfolios, there’s reduced exposure to high yield bonds and increased exposure to municipal bonds. There appears to be limited reward relative to the risks associated with holding high yield bonds. A high yield bond is a corporate loan that theoretically should pay its investors a high level of income because there’s a great risk that the company may not be able to pay back the loan. The expected return of high yield bonds compared to less risky government bonds is near post crisis lows meaning the compensation is very limited for the incremental repayment risk associated with the loan. Some of the most prominent bond fund managers are saying that you should go up in credit quality and reduce credit risk. An example of this is by selling a high yield corporate bond and buying a less risky municipal bond. *Disclosures*: The information provided should not be relied upon as investment advice or recommendations, does not constitute a solicitation to buy or sell securities and should not be considered specific legal, investment or tax advice. The information provided does not take into account the specific objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any specific person. Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss in a declining market. There is no guarantee that any particular asset allocation or mix of funds will meet your investment objectives or provide you with a given level of income. Forecasts or projections of investment outcomes in investment plans are estimates only, based upon numerous assumptions about future capital markets returns and economic factors. As estimates, they are imprecise and hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results. Investing entails risk including the possible loss of principal and there is no assurance that the investment will provide positive performance over any period of time. The theoretical definition of a high yield bond is paraphrased and extrapolated upon Investopedia’s article, “High-Yield Bond” for a non-Layman’s introduction to the concept. The expected return of high yield bonds relative to government bonds being near post crisis lows was in reference to the Bloomberg Barclays US Corporate High Yield Average OAS with a Bloomberg terminal ticker LF98OAS Index for the date range of 4/21/2008 – 4/18/2019. Some of the most prominent bond fund managers saying to go up in credit quality and reduce credit risk was in reference to the Barron’s article, “Corporate Credit Could Be the Next Bubble to Burst” by Randall W. Forsyth and in reference to the Bloomberg 4/17/2019 video interview with Guggenheim Partners’ Scott Minerd titled, “Guggenheim’s Minerd Says Fed Rate Pause Pushes Recession Back to Maybe 2021”. The example provided of moving up in credit quality and reducing credit risk assumes that the high yield bond has a lower credit rating than an investment grade municipal bond.
Views: 13 Round
Session 6 (Undergraduate): Risk free Rates and Risk Premiums (Part 1)
We started on the question of risk free rates and how to assess them in different currencies. In particular, we noted that government bonds are not always risk free and may have to be cleansed of default risk. The rest of today's class was spent talking about equity risk premiums. The key theme to take away is that equity risk premiums don't come from models or history but from our guts. When we (as investors) feel scared or hopeful about everything that is going on around us, the equity risk premium is the receptacle for those fears and hopes. Thus, a good measure of equity risk premium should be dynamic and forward looking. We looked at two different ways of estimating the equity risk premium. 1. Survey Premiums: I had mentioned survey premiums in class and two in particular - one by Merrill of institutional investors and one of CFOs. You can find the Merrill survey on its research link (but you may be asked for a password). You can get the other surveys at the links below: CFO survey: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2422008 Analyst survey: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2450452 2. Historical Premiums: We also talked about historical risk premiums. To see the raw data on historical premiums on my site (and save yourself the price you would pay for Ibbotson's data...) go to updated data on my website: http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/data.html Slides: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/podcasts/cfUGspr16/Session6.pdf Post class test: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/pdfiles/cfovhds/postclass/session6atest.pdf Post class test solution: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/pdfiles/cfovhds/postclass/session6asoln.pdf
Views: 4763 Aswath Damodaran
The Basics of Investing In Bonds
The bond market is the king of all markets. That's because they're considered low risk investments and you don't need to work for the British Secret Service to trade them. In fact, bonds are so popular they are the go to market for people entering retirement. After all, they offer a very stable investment option if you can't handle the heat of the other markets. You can even trade government bonds and feel like James Bond himself, getting yourself a slice of the action. So what is a bond anyway? Sometimes a company or government needs to raise some extra cash for their lavish annual Christmas party, or more likely some research and development. One great option for them is to issue bonds where they will pay the likes of you and me to lend them the money for their business activities. In return, they will pay us a nice tidy amount of interest at a fixed date, which is when the bond expires. That means, you already know how much you will make at the end of the investment. All you need to do is buy the bond and sit back till it expires which can vary depending on the one you buy. Oh and don't forget if everything goes wrong and the company goes bankrupt you'll be first in line to get your initial money back. That's because bondholders are treated like kings....well, creditors actually. Want to learn more? Visit us at http://bit.ly/2qwKWvI We Customise, You Trade
Views: 1420 TradeTime
Understanding Bonds - No-Frills Money Skills, Ep. 4
"Understanding Bonds" is the fourth video in the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis series, "No-Frills Money Skills." The video host employs high-tech tools to foil Miss Information in her attempts to misguide investors. The video provides viewers with information about government bonds, corporate bonds, coupon and non-coupon bonds, and the potential risks and return of investments.
Money and Finance: Crash Course Economics #11
So, we've been putting off a kind of basic question here. What is money? What is currency? How are the two different. Well, not to give away too much, but money has a few basic functions. It acts as a store of value, a medium of exchange, and as a unit of account. Money isn't just bills and coins. It can be anything that meets these three criteria. In US prisons, apparently, pouches of Mackerel are currency. Yes, mackerel the fish. Paper and coins work as money because they're backed by the government, which is an advantage over mackerel. So, once you've got money, you need finance. We'll talk about borrowing, lending, interest, and stocks and bonds. Also, this episode features a giant zucchini, which Adriene grew in her garden. So that's cool. Special thanks to Dave Hunt for permission to use his PiPhone video. this guy really did make an artisanal smartphone! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8eaiNsFhtI8 Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Fatima Iqbal, Penelope Flagg, Eugenia Karlson, Alex S, Jirat, Tim Curwick, Christy Huddleston, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Today I Found Out, Avi Yashchin, Chris Peters, Eric Knight, Jacob Ash, Simun Niclasen, Jan Schmid, Elliot Beter, Sandra Aft, SR Foxley, Ian Dundore, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Robert Kunz, Jessica Wode, Steve Marshall, Anna-Ester Volozh, Christian, Caleb Weeks, Jeffrey Thompson, James Craver, and Markus Persson -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 755169 CrashCourse
B is for Bonds - The Elite Investor Club's A - Z of Investing
To Join the Elite Investor Club, head over to http://www.eliteinvestorclub.com/ Welcome back to the Elite Investor Club’s A to Z of investing. I hope you’ve taken steps to sort out your asset allocation. In this episode we’re going to cover one of the biggest asset classes of all and one of the most misunderstood – bonds! Don’t be fooled by the official sounding language. A bond is quite simply a loan. It’s usually either a loan to a government or a loan to a company. Companies need money to expand their operations, develop and launch new products or acquire other companies. Governments need money because politicians are incapable of living within their means, spend money they don’t have to meet their promises to their cronies and hope that there are enough suckers in the bond markets to buy their loans at pathetically low rates of interest. So far, sadly, they’ve been proved right. The global bond market is enormous and is dominated by America, where short term loans of less than a year are called Treasury bills or T bills. Those that mature in one to ten years are T Notes and the really long term ones that can go up to thirty years are called Treasury Bonds. In the UK these government bonds are known as gilts, presumably because the government is guilty about how little interest they pay. What you’re buying as an investor is a guaranteed future stream of income, called the coupon, and the return of your capital or principle at the end of the term of the bond which can be anything from a few months to several decades. Unlike shares, you don’t own a piece of the company or the government, you just become a source of funds for them. Bonds can trade at more than their face value, a premium, or below it, at a discount. Like any asset, bonds are worth whatever someone else is prepared to pay for them. They will take into account the interest rate or yield and their view of inflation or deflation in the years ahead in arriving at the price they think those specific bonds are worth in today’s money. This where it can get confusing. If you invested ten thousand pounds in a bond paying one per cent interest for the next ten years, that’s £100 a year for ten years. What if interest rates on the next batch of bonds were to pay two per cent interest? That means I can come along with my ten thousand pounds and buy two hundred pounds a year income. The most I’d be prepared to pay for your bond is five thousand pounds, because I now want a yield of two per cent on my capital. So, when interest rates go up, bond prices come down. Conversely, when all sorts of institutions like pension funds are told by their regulators to switch from ‘risky’ stocks and shares to ‘safe’ bonds, we see so much money chasing safe bonds that the prices go sky high and the yields become zero or even negative! Even some of the basket case countries of Southern Europe are able to sell their bonds at interest rates that in no way reflect the risk of a potential default. So we now have this situation where bond prices are at a forty year high based on record low interest rates. We all have to play a guessing game about when the Bank of England in the UK or, more importantly, the Federal Reserve in America, decides to raise interest rates. Because the likely result of an interest rate rise will be a crash in bond prices. Any such crash will be exacerbated by the lack of liquidity in the market, but that’s a concept we’ll look at another time. In the world of loans to companies, corporate bonds, we’ve seen a similarly disturbing trend. Bond prices have risen significantly even for companies with poor credit ratings whose bonds are given the rather unflattering name, junk bonds. Very small companies have been successfully offering mini bonds, while at the micro company level you could even regard crowd-lending as a form of corporate bond. In all cases you have to balance the interest rate being offered with the likelihood of the company being around and able to repay your capital at the end of the bond period. If you’re new to investing, the only way you should hold bonds is within broadly diversified funds within the kind of asset allocation we discussed in the previous episode. If you’re an experienced investor, now might be the time to research strategies for shorting some of the major bond markets, either through spread betting or through leveraged ETFs that give you the chance to place a Put option on the bond markets. The bond market is too big to ignore, but at this moment in history I urge you to approach with care!
Views: 1713 Elite Investor TV
Different Types of Bonds | Introduction to Corporate Finance | CPA Exam BEC | CMA Exam | Chp 7 p 4
In this section, we briefly look at bonds issued by governments and also at bonds with unusual features. GOVERNMENT BONDS The biggest borrower in the world—by a wide margin—is everybody’s favorite family member, Uncle Sam. In early 2014, the total debt of the U.S. government was $17.5 trillion, or about $55,000 per citizen (and growing!). When the government wishes to borrow money for more than one year, it sells what are known as Treasury notes and bonds to the public (in fact, it does so every month). Currently, outstanding Treasury notes and bonds have original maturities ranging from 2 to 30 years. Most U.S. Treasury issues are just ordinary coupon bonds. There are two important things to keep in mind, however. First, U.S. Treasury issues, unlike essentially all other bonds, have no default risk because (we hope) the Treasury can always come up with the money to make the payments. Second, Treasury issues are exempt from state income taxes (though not federal income taxes). In other words, the coupons you receive on a Treasury note or bond are taxed only at the federal level. For information on municipal bonds including prices, check out emma.msrb.org. State and local governments also borrow money by selling notes and bonds. Such issues are called municipal notes and bonds, or just “munis.” Unlike Treasury issues, munis have varying degrees of default risk, and, in fact, they are rated much like corporate issues. Also, they are almost always callable. The most intriguing thing about munis is that their coupons are exempt from federal income taxes (though not necessarily state income taxes), which makes them very attractive to high-income, high–tax bracket investors. FLOATING-RATE BONDS The conventional bonds we have talked about in this chapter have fixed-dollar obligations because the coupon rates are set as fixed percentages of the par values. Similarly, the principal amounts are set equal to the par values. Under these circumstances, the coupon payments and principal are completely fixed. OTHER TYPES OF BONDS Many bonds have unusual or exotic features. So-called catastrophe, or cat, bonds provide an interesting example. In August 2013, Northshore Re Limited, a reinsurance company, issued $200 million in cat bonds (reinsurance companies sell insurance to insurance companies). These cat bonds covered hurricanes and earthquakes in the U.S. In the event of one of these triggering events, Northshore Re would receive cash flows to offset its loss. The largest single cat bond issue to date is a series of six bonds sold by Merna Reinsurance in 2007. The six bond issues were to cover various catastrophes the company faced due to its reinsurance of State Farm. The six bonds totaled about $1.2 billion in par value. During 2013, about $7.6 billion in cat bonds were issued, and there was about $20.6 billion par value in cat bonds outstanding at the end of the year. ncome bonds are similar to conventional bonds, except that coupon payments depend on company income. Specifically, coupons are paid to bondholders only if the firm’s income is sufficient. This would appear to be an attractive feature, but income bonds are not very common. A convertible bond can be swapped for a fixed number of shares of stock anytime before maturity at the holder’s option. Convertibles are relatively common, but the number has been decreasing in recent years. A put bond allows the holder to force the issuer to buy back the bond at a stated price. For example, International Paper Co. has bonds outstanding that allow the holder to force International Paper to buy the bonds back at 100 percent of face value if certain “risk” events happen. One such event is a change in credit rating from investment grade to lower than investment grade by Moody’s or S&P. The put feature is therefore just the reverse of the call provision. The reverse convertible is a relatively new type of structured note. One type generally offers a high coupon rate, but the redemption at maturity can be paid in cash at par value or paid in shares of stock. For example, one recent General Motors (GM) reverse convertible had a coupon rate of 16 percent, which is a very high coupon rate in today’s interest rate environment. However, at maturity, if GM’s stock declined sufficiently, bondholders would receive a fixed number of GM shares that were worth less than par value. So, while the income portion of the bond return would be high, the potential loss in par value could easily erode the extra return. Perhaps the most unusual bond (and certainly the most ghoulish) is the “death bond.” Companies such as Stone Street Financial purchase life insurance policies from individuals who are expected to die within the next 10 years.
Understanding the yield curve
You read about it a lot in the business pages, and it sounds super complicated. But the yield curve is dead easy to read. Especially if you've every played chutes and ladders (or, snakes and ladders in the UK). Paddy Hirsch explains. Subscribe to our channel! https://youtube.com/user/marketplacevideos
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The right bond for any purpose
The right bond for any purpose Viewing bonds by their maturity So I hope I've given you an overview of bonds, and the number one enemy of bonds, inflation. I hope you've also seen that debtor governments have a bias towards tolerating inflation because it reduces their debt burden. But let's take a closer look at the various types of bonds and see how you can use them in your everyday investing. Perhaps the simplest way to look at bonds is by their maturities. Bonds usually are classified into cash equivalents, short-term, intermediate-term and long-term bonds. Cash equivalents Cash equivalents are US Treasury bills which mature in 90 days, short-term certificates of deposits, or so-called commercial paper issued by large companies. Cash equivalents normally mature in 120 days or less, and face little interest rate risk. The interest rate risk is low because even if interest rates zoom up, your investment will soon be returned and you can reinvest at the higher interest rate. Short-term bonds Short-term bonds are said to mature in two to three years. Short-term bonds generally yield more than cash equivalents, and the interest rate risk is higher as well. If interest rates shoot up, you'll have to wait two to three years to reinvest at the higher rates. Of course you always can sell your short-term bonds in the open market, but if interest rates already have risen, you'll have to sell your short-term bonds at a slight loss. Intermediate-term bonds Intermediate-term bonds can be thought of as those bonds that will mature in five to seven years. They usually yield a little more than short-term bonds, and of course face higher interest rate risk. Long-term bonds Finally, long-term bonds can be thought of as those bonds that will mature in 15 to 20 years or more. The so-called "long bond" in the US Treasury market is watched closely, and has a maturity of 30 years. Long-term bonds generally pay a little higher interest than intermediate-term bonds, but the interest rate risk for long-term bonds is high. If you like to speculate on interest rate moves, you should buy or sell long-term bonds. The investment climate of the late 1970s and early 1980s was a great example of the risks and potential rewards of investing in long-term bonds. The Jimmy Carter Memorial Inflation and long bonds During the "Jimmy Carter memorial inflation" long-term bond investors had negative returns from 1977 through 1981. However, after the appointment of Paul Volcker as chairman of the US Federal Reserve, the US became more serious about fighting inflation. Although most investors suffered losses in long-term bonds in the late 1970s, those who bet that lower interest rates were coming were richly rewarded in 1982 when the long-term bond market posted a total return of 40 percent in one year. Most of this return was in the form of capital gains realized through a sharp drop in interest rates. Remember that long-term bonds are sensitive to changes in interest rates. Potential for gains by timing the bond market With all this talk about capital gains or losses in the bond market, you might be thinking, "Well, here's an easy way to make lots of money in the bond market. Just buy long-term bonds when interest rates are falling, reap the capital gains, and then sell before interest rates rise again." You could make money if you can time the market. The operative word here is "if". Virtually no one beats the bond market Although there is some evidence that a few people are able to beat market averages in stocks, there is little evidence that anyone can win in the bond market. Independent rating services that monitor bond market forecasters show that almost no one beats a simple buy and hold strategy in the bond market. It's easy to see why. The US Treasury market is easily the deepest, most liquid, and most watched market for any security in the world. In this market, it's extremely doubtful that you know something that others don't. Of course there is something to be said about being a contrarian, but studies show that most people who try to time the bond market actually do worse than those who use a buy and hold strategy. After accounting for trading commissions, taxes, and the expense of a bond guru's high-priced newsletter, it's doubtful you can beat the market. Resist the temptation. Most of a bond's return comes from initial yield Still, don't get carried away with all this talk about potential capital gains, even when investing in volatile long-term bonds. Over time, the total annual return you'll get on a bond investment is approximately equal to the current yield of your bond. In fact, over 80 percent of the total return on a bond is explained by the current yield of the bond. Copyright 1997 by David Luhman
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